At the design and construction stage, great importance is attached to measures to prevent the development of erosion and eliminate its causes. This allows you to reliably and quickly fix problem areas of roads that are most susceptible to erosion. The work includes a whole range of forest reclamation, hydrotechnical, agrotechnical and economic measures to stop the erosion process, restore soils that have already been eroded, and restore their fertility.
An important point is to establish the causes of erosion, develop plans to eliminate them and prevent the formation of new foci of erosion. There are several types of erosion control structures. An example is the objects in the catchment area: channel, bottom, ravine. All of them are aimed at solving a complex of different problems.
At the head gully objects, cantilever discharges, high currents, drops, shaft wells are used. On catchment areas, these structures are ramparts-terraces, brushwood pavements, upland ditches, drainage ramparts. The main purpose of these structures is to protect buildings, roads, bridges and other objects at risk. The end sections of the ditches, partitions at the bottom of the ravines are classified as channel and bottom structures. Their stability ensures the safety and normal operation of drainage systems. Anti-erosion structures are used along with forest reclamation and agrotechnical measures, which are mainly designed to obtain an effect in the future in 10-13 years.
In forest and forest-steppe regions, structures made of wood and stone, fascines are used to combat erosion processes. In case of crossing of ditches and excavations by motor roads, it becomes necessary to arrange bottom anti-erosion structures. To prevent the development of erosion at the base of ravines, dams are used. The creation of drainage structures makes it possible to regulate the flow that forms on the surface of the landslide. Strengthening of ravines, backfilling and leveling allows to quickly bring water out of the landslide. When building a road structure, it is necessary to understand that each area has its own local characteristics.
Considerable attention should be paid to the design of highways in difficult geological conditions. Karst processes can be triggered by increased moisture in the surface layer. In this case, the construction of drainage and water-lowering structures will be justified. Closed or lowered places should be provided with water drainage to the lower part of the road structure.
Water flowing down from the road surface contains an increased amount of highly toxic substances. It is necessary to organize control over the quality of the discharged water in order to create a set of measures for their purification. The higher the intensity of traffic on the highway, the more significant the pollution of surface waters. Over time, pollutants accumulate on the surface of the roadway, which subsequently undergo transformation, changing their physicochemical properties, and, as a rule, contaminate surface waters even more.
To make a decision on the need for wastewater treatment, you should use the regulatory documents. If, according to the results of the analyzes, it is established that the amount of pollution discharge does not exceed the permissible discharge, the need for wastewater treatment is excluded. If calculations have shown the need for surface wastewater treatment, then schemes for discharging water to treatment facilities should be developed.
Currently, it is important not only to purify surface wastewater, but also to use wastewater treatment products for household needs. Specially treated waste can be used as fuel or various fillers in the production of building materials.
In the absence of data on the pollution of surface runoff, it is necessary to carry out an analysis using rapid methods to control environmental pollution. This is necessary in order to obtain baseline data for establishing the actual indicators of wastewater pollution.
To reduce the degree of pollution of road surfaces, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures: limiting the proportion of parking lots, dry cleaning of the surface of roads, overpasses, removal of gas stations located near water receivers. These measures are extremely necessary when there is a ban on the construction of urban structures, or their introduction has been postponed for a number of reasons.
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