There is a wide variety of drainage structures available to drain water from road surfaces. The main ones are ditches, ditches, reserves to avoid moisture penetration into the road structure during road operation.
One of the important indicators in road construction is the lateral slope. It is carried out in accordance with the requirements of the regulations and allows you to prevent the destruction of the road surface from the impact of various vehicles and excludes the penetration of surface water into the structure of the road. Road drainage structures and drainage ditches allow to remove rain and melt water from road slopes, from excavations and overheads.
Surface water can be both seeping to the base of the road structure and from slopes, slopes, and the surface of the route. All these waters are diverted through special structures to the terrain with a low level relative to the roadbed and then into water bodies, provided that this does not lead to swamping of the area near the roadbed.
The diversion channels must be carried out using a special technology, which, during the construction process, provides for the use of appropriate waterproofing of drainage structures. The surface layer of such insulation has reliable protection against erosion and destruction of the structure for water drainage. The calculation of the hydraulic characteristics of the flow has a very important role in deciding on this issue.
Standard and design parameters of drainage structures are subject to detailed analysis. As a rule, the design parameters should not be higher than the normative ones. The cross-section of ditches, cuvettes can have various shapes, but their minimum cross-section must be tested for the flow rate of water obtained by calculation. And if the need arises, it is permissible to increase the depth of the section, while leaving the minimum width unchanged in the region of the bottom.
To ensure reliable operation of drainage ditches, their design is carried out in accordance with the established procedure, which takes into account all the features of a given region - this is the state of the soil, climatic conditions, etc. Based on these data, a hydraulic calculation of the ditch is carried out, which will provide the necessary slope to create an admissible water velocity in the canal.
However, the speed of water in the ditch obtained and justified from the point of view of ecology and economics cannot always be applied without a preliminary decision to strengthen the drainage ditch. Without reinforcement, the speed of water movement should not be less than 0.3 msec.
Regulatory documents without fail regulate the so-called longitudinal slope of the structure, which, as a rule, should be 5% or more, and only in certain situations is it possible to allow the value of this indicator to be 3%. For cuvettes, this slope should be 2% or more if the value in the notch does not exceed 2%. Be sure to have a two-way water outlet from the recess.
These are some of the main points that must be taken into account when carrying out work on the construction of road drainage structures in order to significantly increase the safety of the use of the roadway.
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